Bibliographic Matters

The SHCDA’s Primary & Secondary Bibliographies
Generating Primary Bibliographies
Generating Secondary Bibliographies

The SHCDA’s Primary & Secondary Bibliographies

The SHCDA bibliography is comprised of all of the Track Files for each recording stored in the archive. Each Track File includes primary (and sometimes secondary) bibliographic information about that track and the event at which it was performed. The information you need to cite a recording and/or event should be available from the individual Track File pages.

See here for explanations of the various component parts of the Track File

NOTE: What follows relates to sound recordings. For citation of essays and other texts stored in, or generated by, the SHCDA, we refer users to MLA guidelines for citing online resources.

Please remember that in the SHCDA, primary bibliographic information is that which pertains to the tracks and events stored in the SHCDA. Secondary bibliographic information is that which pertains to print-published versions of the recorded works within the SHCDA . Not every recorded work has a print-published equivalent, therefore not every Track File provides secondary bibliographic information.

In relation to secondary bibliographic information, you will notice that certain Track Files include the designation UTR after the title of piece that is performed. UTR stands for Uncollected at Time of Recording.

What this means is that the recorded poem (or prose extract) was not published in a single-author publication at the time it was recorded.

However, It might well be the case that the work was published in a single-author work after it was recorded for the SHCDA. If this is the case then the UTR designation will be present in the Track File AS WELL AS secondary bibliographic information pertaining to where the piece was subsequently published. (For more on the term UTR and its significance, see here)

The SHCDA will update information in the archive as often as possible in relation to publication of recorded works assigned a UTR designation. However, the nature of such updates means that UTR information may not be up to the minute. We therefore strongly advise users who reference UTR items to double-check the publication history of the item. Additionally, we would appreciate users contacting the SHCDA with any information regarding subsequent publication. Indeed, we appreciate any notification concerning bibliographic matters.


Generating Primary Bibliographies

Guidelines for Citing and Referencing the SHCDA

What follows are suggestions for how you might use the data from Track Files to create primary bibliographic references of recordings in the SHCDA. Please Note: the MLA style for referencing is the one adopted by the SHCDA and these guidelines have been followed as closely as possible. If you are not following an MLA style of referencing then, of course, bibliographic systems and journal styles will need to be adapted.

The SHCDA believes that within a performance event there are identifiable categories of performance that are related to, but independent from, the act of performing poetry, prose or music. For example, the SHCDA considers the introduction of the performer(s), question and answer sessions, interviews, and talks as distinct and important categories of the overall performance event.

It is further felt that bibliographic citation should recognise these distinct performance categories. MLA guidelines for spoken-word performances have been adapted where, as far as we can ascertain, they are not covered in the MLA Style Manual.

From the MLA Style Manual (6th Edition), section 5.8.2, ‘A Sound Recording’:

“Treat a spoken-word recording as you would a musical recording. Begin with the speaker, the writer, or the production director, depending on the desired emphasis….”

“Do not underline or enclose in quotation marks the title of a private or archival recording or tape. Include the date recorded (if known) and the location and identifying number of recording.”

In addressing bibliographic concerns, the aim is to provide necessary bibliographic information in a succinct, clear and standardised fashion. If you have questions, or perhaps disagree with the suggestions below, please email: pmaddern01@qub.ac.uk.

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Individual tracks

Where the performer of a creative composition (poetry, music, prose) is also the author of that composition, the SHCDA suggests:

Surname, First Name(s) of performer. Title of Performed Work. Date recorded. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Location of sound file. Track File code. Date accessed online (URL for recording).

for example:
Gamble, Miriam. Clipping Out. Rec. 5 Apr. 2008. MP3. Londonderry Arms Hotel, Carnlough. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. GR.HewittSpring08.8.MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/Store343/item71603/>.

Where the performer of the creative composition is NOT the author:

We suggest that in order to retain an emphasis on oral performance the name of the performer, not the author of the work, comes first. The format the SHCDA therefore suggests is:

Surname, First Name(s) of performer. Title of Performed Work, by First Name(s) and Surname of author. Date of recording. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Track file code. Date accessed online .

for example:

Wylie, Alex. Orolava Road, by Basil Bunting. Rec. 2 Feb. 2007. MP3. No Alibis Bookstore, Belfast. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. GR.CandleFEB07.10.MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item72904/ >.

Where the recorded work is donated:



We feel it is important to acknowledge the donation of recordings to the SHCDA. It is suggested that the act of donation and the person(s) or institution responsible for the donation are noted in the bibliographic entry. We suggest this notation occur after the location of the digital file:

Surname, First Name(s) of performer. Title of Performed Work. Date of recording. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Donated by Name of Individual or Institution. Track file code. Date accessed online (URL of recording).

for example:
Perry, Paul. The Red Dogs of Wicklow. Rec. 3 Aug. 2005. MP3. White House Bar, Limerick. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. Donated by Paul Perry. SR.PUB.Perry.3.MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/playfile/store343/item72428/>.



Where the recorded work is untitled:

It happens, occasionally, that a performer does not state the name of the performed piece. With established writers and performers it is usually possible to track down the title. In the case of unpublished authors and works, it is more difficult and sometimes impossible. In such circumstances, it is suggested that the first few words of the piece should stand in as the title and that these words are followed by an ellipsis (enclosed in square brackets and followed by a full stop) to indicate a continuing speech act. It is also suggested that along with the categorization of ‘Untitled’, immediately after the ellipsis and full stop, the genre of performed piece is also included. It is felt that this will aid research and future identification. The format the SHCDA therefore suggests is:

Surname, First Name(s) of performer. First few words of performed piece [...]. Untitled and genre of performed piece. Date of recording. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Track file code. Date accessed on line (URL of recording).

for example:
Heart, Kevin. Murphy are you lovesick, or what? [...]. Untitled short story. Rec. 27 Jul. 2007. MP3. The Market Theatre, Armagh. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. GR.HewittWrkshp.
14. MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item71611/ >.



Where a recorded work is a translation:

If the translator of a performed translation is known, the translator’s name should follow the title of the performed work and the author of the performed work. We recommend stating the name of the translator even if the translator and performer are one and the same. In order to retain an emphasis on performance, it is suggested that the performer’s name heads the entry. If required, we suggest following the MLA guideline (5.6.23. A) for translation of foreign words: “If it seems necessary to clarify the title, provide a translation, in brackets: Gengangere [Ghosts].” But it is important to note that the translated title of a creative work is not always the literal translation of that title.

The format the SHCDA therefore suggests for the recording of a translated work is:

Surname, First Name(s) of performer. Title of Performed Work [Translation of title if required], by First Name(s) and Surname of author. First Names(s) and Surname of translator. Date recorded. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Track file code. Date accessed on line (URL for recording).

for example [note translator and performer are the same in this instance]:
Carson, Ciaran. Malairt [Switch], by Seán Ó Ríordáin. Trans. Ciaran Carson. Rec. 1 Mar. 2008. MP3. Canada Room, Lanyon Building, Queen’s University Belfast. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. GR.Academi08.2.MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item71106/ >.



Where poetry or prose is performed with music (and where performers are authors and/or composers):

As the emphasis of the SHCDA is the spoken word, we suggest the featured reader(s) come first, followed by the featured musician(s). The format the SHCDA therefore suggests is:

Surname, First Name(s) of participant, role(s) of participant, and First Name(s) Surname of participant, role(s) of participant. Title of piece performed. Date recorded. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Track file code. Date accessed online (URL address for recording).

for example:
Newmann, Kate, author and reader, and Deirdre McKay, composer and violinist. Put to Loss Because of the Snow. Rec. 3 Feb. 2007. MP3. The Church, Old Court, Strangford. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. GR.WildGeese07.28.MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item72022/>.

Where the performers are not the authors or composers, then following a comma after the title of the performed work, the bibliographic entry should include the name(s) of the author(s) and/or composer(s).

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Where the recording is of an introduction or a ‘thank-you’:

By an ‘introduction’, we mean the introduction of the performer to the audience by a third party. We do not mean the performers’ introductions of the works that they perform. (Within the SHCDA, the latter are not separated from the individual performed works.) Do not assume that one event has only one introduction. Several can be performed throughout the course of an event, especially if the event is a group reading and divided into sections. And, sometimes, even the introducer can be introduced!

By a ‘thank-you’ we mean that portion of the reading where someone (very often the person who performed the introduction) thanks the participants in the reading. As above, do not assume there is only one ‘thank-you’ performed during a reading, especially if the event is a group reading and/or divided into sections.

The format the SHCDA suggests for an introduction is:

Surname, First Name(s) of introducer. Introduces [+] subject(s) of introduction. Date Recorded. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Track file code. Date accessed online (URL for recording).

for example:
Carson, Ciaran. Introduces Tess Gallagher. Rec. 22 Mar. 2007. MP3. G9 Lanyon Building, Queen’s University Belfast. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. SR.PUB.Gallagher.1.MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/ item72204/>.

However, it might be more appropriate to include the title of the event rather than the individual name(s) of the reader(s) being introduced. This is especially true where several readers are introduced at one time. In such cases, the title of the event is underlined.

for example:
McGuckian, Medbh. Introduces Heaney Centre Inaugural Lunchbox Reading. Rec. 16 Apr. 2007. MP3. Seamus Heaney Centre, Queen’s University Belfast. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. GR.StPatHean07.1.MP3 . 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item71811/>.



(Please note: while the titles of introductions, as they appear in the SHCDA individual track files, regularly include the names of all those introduced, this format is adopted in order to facilitate effective search and browse functions.)

The suggested format for citing a ‘thank-you’ is similar to that for an introduction, except that the title of the event is always included. This is because the ‘thank-you’ regularly involves thanking not only the performers but also those responsible for organizing the event.

The format the SHCDA suggests for a ‘thank-you’ is:

Surname, First Name(s). Thanks participants in Title of Reading. Date Recorded. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Track file code. Date accessed online (URL for recording).

for example:
Ramsay, Pat. Thanks participants in Cherry Smyth Book Launch: One Wanted Thing. Rec. 20 Feb. 2007. MP3. Black Box Theatre, Belfast. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. SR.PUB.Smyth.C. 21.MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item72086/ >.



Where the recording is of a question-and-answer session or interview:

There is a difference between a question and answer session, which involves audience participation, and a one-on-one interview. For an answer given in response to an audience member, we suggest noting that it was a question and answer session (Q&A), along with a summation of the question posed.

The format the SHCDA suggests for citing a Question and Answer track is:

Surname, First Name(s) of person providing answer. Q&A: Question posed. Date recorded. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Track file code. Date accessed online (URL for recording).

for example:
Kirkham, Matt. Q&A: Do you write quickly? Rec. 30 Apr. 2007. MP3. Killyleagh Library, Co. Down. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. SR.PUB.Kirkham.12.MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item75231/>.

The format the SHCDA suggest for citing a track from an interview is:

Surname, First Name(s) of interviewee. Interview with First Name(s) Surname(s): Subject of interview. Date recorded. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Track file code. Date accessed online (URL for recording).

for example:
Bryce, Colette. Interview with Paul Perry: Bryce on Women in Irish Poetry. Rec. 28 Sep. 2007. MP3. Bangor Castle, Bangor. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. GR.Aspects07.19.MP3. 15 Mar. 2010
< http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item71160/ >.


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An entire event

Here the title of the event is the first item noted and it is underlined. In other respects, the format for referencing an event remains largely the same as for referencing an individual track. Note, however, that the Event File code replaces the Track File code. Also, there are no URLs for individual events, so we suggest citing the SHCDA homepage.

The format we recommend for citing an entire event is:
Event Title. Date recorded. Format of recording. Venue of recording. Repository holding sound file. Date accessed < SHCDA URL >. Event File code.
for example:
Queen’s University Belfast English Society Book Launch: Tidelines. Rec. 21 Nov. 2007. MP3. No Alibis, Belfast. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. 11 Mar. 2010 < http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/home/ >. GR.Tidelines07.

The participants in a recording are only noted as and when they are included in the title of the recording. For example, in a group recording:
Seamus Heaney Centre Reading: Donovan and O’Driscoll. Rec. 22 Feb. 2007. MP3. G09, Lanyon Building, Queen’s University Belfast. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive, Queen’s University Belfast. 11 Mar. 2010 < http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/home/ >. GR. DonovanO’Driscoll.

or at an event with a single performer:

Allan Gillis Book Launch: “Hawks and Doves”. Rec. 12.Oct 2008. MP3. No Alibis Bookstore, Belfast. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. 11 Mar. 2010 < http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/home/ >. SR.PUB.Gillis1.

Note: If, as directly above, the event is to launch a publication (book, anthology, journal, CD, DVD etc.), put in quotations the publication within the underlined title of the recorded event.

Should you wish to list each track within an event we suggest you first cite the entire event, as stated above, and then list the: Track File code, the Title of the performed piece, UTR (if applicable), the performer, the author/composer (if applicable), and the URL for the individual Track. For example:

Academi Conference 2008: Belfast Meets Wales. Rec. 1 Mar. 2008. MP3. Canada Room, Lanyon Building, Queen’s University Belfast. Seamus Heaney Centre Digital Archive. 11 Mar. 2010 < http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/home/ >. GR.Academi08.

GR.Academi08.1.mp3. Title: Carson Plays and Contextualizes Aisling Air. Performer: Ciaran Carson. Authors: Anon. < http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item82725/ >.

GR.Academi08.2.mp3. Title: Switch [Malairt].Performer: Ciaran Carson: Author: Seán Ó Ríordáin. Translator: Ciaran Carson. < http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item82736/ >.

GR.Academi08.3.mp3. Title: Eaves. Performer: Ciaran Carson. Author: Anon. (Welsh). Translator: Ciaran Carson. < http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item82745/ >.

GR.Academi08.4.mp3. Title: The Lost Girl. Performer; Ciaran Carson. Author: Robert ab Gwilym Ddu. Translator: Ciaran Carson. < http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item82746/ >.

GR.Academi08.5.mp3. Title: Excerpts From A Tourist’s Handbook.Performer: Ciaran Carson. Author: Ciaran Carson. < http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/poetry/recordings/results/play-file/store343/item82747/ >.

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Generating Secondary Bibliographies

In the SHCDA, Secondary Bibliographic information is that which pertains to print-published versions of the tracks stored within the SHCDA. If a performed work is published in a single-author collection or prose work, secondary bibliographic information is provided. This applies for a work performed by its author, as well as for a work where the performer is NOT the author.

But not every recorded work has been published in a single-author collection. Or, to put it another way: not every Track File provides secondary bibliographic information. When a performed work is not collected, it is given the designation UTR. (See here for more on UTR.)

But where there is secondary bibliographic information for a recorded work, all the information needed to provide a bibliographic entry for that publication should be available on the Track File page.

In all instances, the SHCDA suggests that secondary bibliographic entries generated by Track Files follow the MLA guidelines for referencing published works. We would refer users to the MLA Style Manual for assistance.

BUT YOU MUST KEEP IN MIND: If, in the body of your essay, you are referencing the secondary source of a recording (i.e. the print-published version of the recorded work) the SHCDA DOES NOT PROVIDE PAGE NUMBERS for these sources – and you will be required to provide this information in your footnote or endnote.

Below are a few examples of Secondary Bibliographic entries generated from information taken from Track Files contained within the SHCDA. Following MLA guidelines, the suggested format is:

Surname, First Name(s) of author. Title of publication. Location of publication: publisher, year of publication.
for example:

Gamble, Miriam. This Man’s Town. London: tall-lighthouse, 2007.

Kirkham, Matt. The Lost Museums. Belfast: Lagan Press, 2006.

If a performed work is from an anthology or a journal, the editor’s name will be provided on the Track File pages for the individual recordings within that event.

for example:
Longley, Michael, and Frank Ormsby, eds. John Hewitt: Selected Poems. Belfast: Blackstaff Press, 2007.

But bibliographic information for an anthology or journal will only be provided on the Track File page when the recorded event is to launch or celebrate that anthology or journal. Otherwise, only information for single-author publications is provided by the SHCDA.


It is entirely likely that all eventualities with regard to bibliographic entries have not been covered. If there are questions please do not hesitate to contact the SHCDA: pmaddern01@qub.ac.uk

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